Big 5, Entrepreneurial Capital, Counterproductive Behavioral Tendencies

Welcome to our comprehensive Psychology Glossary! In this resource, you’ll find definitions and insights into key concepts, including the Big Five, Entrepreneurial Capital, and Counterproductive Traits. Explore the intricacies of the human mind and behavior in this informative glossary.

Big 5 

The Big Five personality model is a widely accepted theory in personality psychology. It posits that there are five broad dimensions of personality that are present in every individual to varying degrees. These dimensions include open-mindedness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Furthermore, each Big Five personality factor can be understood as a dimension with two opposite poles. This means that each dimension of the Big Five represents two opposing poles or endpoints of a continuum

Extraversion – Introversion

Extraversion refers to the extent to which a person is oriented toward the outer world of people, events and external activities and need social contact and external stimulation. Individuals scoring high on Extraversion tend to go more out of themselves, draw energy from social contact, and invest more time in building their social networks. Extroverts are generally talkative, comfortable asserting themselves, enthusiastic and energetic.


In contrast, introverted people are oriented towards their own inner world of thoughts, perceptions, and experiences and do not need much social contact and external stimulation. They draw energy from quiet life situations and often spend time in deep reflection. Socially reserved, they need less social contact with others and are comfortable leaving the limelight to others. Introverts tend to put the needs of others above their own.


An expression between these extremes is called ambiversion. People with moderate levels on this scale can draw energy from both social contact and from concentrated moments of withdrawal. It is generally easy for them to meet the communicative requirements of the respective situation.

Open-mindedness – Conventional

The personality factor of Open-mindedness refers to a person’s tendency to be open to new experiences, ideas, and perspectives. People who score high on this factor tend to be curious, imaginative, and creative, and may enjoy exploring new ideas and possibilities. They may be fascinated by innovations and may be curious about new things in many different areas of life. Imaginative and unconventional, they tend to question the status quo and prefer to work in environments where they are free to initiate change, experiment and innovate. At times, they may not give due consideration to more practical considerations and overlook the value of acquired wisdom and knowledge.


In contrast, people who score on the other end of the continuum, known as Conventional, may be more traditional, conventional, and conservative in their thinking and behavior. They are likely to adopt a tradition-conscious and value-oriented attitude towards the known. They may view innovations critically and tend not to rush into something new. They tend to develop mastery in one area of life, but not in many, and turn more to pragmatic questions than to abstract or aesthetic ones.


A moderate level on the Open-mindedness – Conventional scale signifies being receptive and open-minded for a few select areas of life and having a different approach toward innovations and advances. The thirst for knowledge and the interest in new experiences are not as pronounced when compared to those who score higher on the Open-mindedness scale and do not shape behavior as strongly.

Emotional Stability – Emotional Sensitivity

The Emotional Stability – Emotional Sensitivity scale refers to how intense external stimuli must be to upset a person’s balance as well as their tendency to experience negative affect. People with a high degree of expression of Emotional Stability can easily deal with their own feelings and are resilient during times of hardship. They are relaxed, can deal with stressful situations and rarely feel sad or depressed. They are likely to have more than sufficient energy to meet life’s challenges. They tend to be confident and secure in themselves and satisfied with their life and their achievements. Sometimes this may prompt them to become complacent, or overly accepting of unsatisfactory situations.


In contrast, people who score on the opposite end of this scale, also known as Emotional Sensitivity, tend to experience emotions intensely and may be strongly influenced and guided by them. They may be more reactive to stressors, and may experience a range of negative emotions more frequently and intensely. They may also exhibit emotions associated with anxiety, depression and irritability and may base their actions on these feelings which can have an unfiltered, emotionally charged effect. Prone to experiencing negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, restlessness, despondency), they may at times have difficulty summoning up sufficient energy to face demanding situations. However, their inclination to experience strong emotions may also be a source of drive, spurring them on to resolve situations they are unhappy with, or which they find unsatisfactory or unrewarding.


Moderate scorers are likely not unduly prone to changes in mood. They generally have sufficient energy to cope with life’s demands. However, they may nonetheless experience some stress when coping with particularly demanding situations or when placed under extreme emotional pressure. While minor irritations should not generally upset them, if their goals are repeatedly frustrated, they may become impatient or annoyed.

Conscientiousness – Flexibility

Conscientiousness refers to a person’s tendency to be responsible, reliable, and disciplined. People who score high on this factor tend to be organized, diligent, and self-disciplined, and may prioritize achieving their goals and fulfilling their obligations. They are typically organized and value order and precision. It is easy for them to concentrate on one goal, since they tend to be focused, have good impulse control, and engage in goal-directed behavior. Dependable and reliable, these individuals believe in achievement through hard work


In contrast, individuals that score on the other end of the continuum, known as Flexibility, are more adaptable in nature, tend to make decisions more quickly, take more risks, and may be more flexible with their time. They often prefer not to focus on a single goal but rather enjoy variety and flexibility. They may be distracted more quickly and be impulsive at times. These individuals often have more creative approaches to solutions, but work efficiency may be reduced.


An expression between these extremes can be helpful to loosen up working groups with a high level of conscientiousness or to focus those with a high level of flexibility. People with moderate degrees on the Conscientiousness – Flexibility scale have the potential to evaluate and choose which tasks to do – specifically whether they work on challenges with distance and ease or with goal orientation and strict discipline.

Agreeableness – Competitiveness

Agreeableness describes the extent to which people are compassionate towards others, selfless, eager to help, and believe that others will be as helpful in return. People with high Agreeableness scores find it easy to empathize with others, treat them respectfully, and give them space. They are considerate, accommodating, truthful, arouse a liking in others and tend to avoid conflicts.

People with low levels of Agreeableness, also known as Competitiveness, are typically competition-oriented and eager to assert their own interests. They adapt themselves little to the expectations of others and are not empathetic to others’ needs. They may tend to be critical, skeptical, hostile, condescending, and manipulative of others.

Individuals obtaining moderate scores on the Agreeableness – Competitiveness scale oscillate between yielding and adapting to other people’s needs but also remaining firm in their own beliefs and points of view. They may act as a mediator between individuals scoring low and high on Agreeableness by helping people with high Agreeableness values to take their own positions seriously, or people with high Competitiveness values to consider and accept the norms and views of others.

Entrepreneurial Capital 

Entrepreneurial Capital (EC) describes characteristics that successful founders and entrepreneurial leaders com- monly possess and correlates positively with team and organizational success – especially organizational citizen- ship and leadership. The states of EC are Resilience, Optimism, Self-efficacy conviction and Agility Mindset. Derived from the concept of “flow” from positive psychology, the four personality constructs may be applied to the workplace, where an individual can enter this state when there is a harmonious alignment between job fit and personal and organizational goals. Building on this previous research, Zortify has adapted the constructs into dimensions that apply to the workplace with an emphasis on characteristics of entrepreneurship. 


Individuals who demonstrate a high level of Optimism are often described as cheerful, forward-thinking, and pro- active. They possess a willingness to take risks and are inclined to derive positive outcomes from challenging situations. Their optimistic outlook on the future enables them to dispel fears and inspire others to action, even among those who may be doubtful or hesitant. They tend to see even difficult situations as opportunities for growth 
and learning. On the other hand, individuals with a low level of Optimism tend to be cautious, risk-averse, and often have a negative or pessimistic mindset. They tend to be critical in their expressions and may dwell on the negative aspects of a situation. Such individuals do not hold optimistic expectations for the future and are more likely to approach risks with caution, preferring to avoid taking action altogether. They tend to be critical, often highlighting potential risks and may advise against taking risks. They may be more likely to give up easily when faced with challenges 
as setbacks. 

Self-efficacy conviction

Self-efficacy describes the core belief in one’s own abilities and contains the certainty that one’s own actions have an influence on what happens in life. In contrast, fatalism represents the opposite of self-efficacy, where individuals view themselves as being powerless and subject to forces beyond their control. Individuals with high Selfefficacy scores tend to have a strong belief in their own abilities and capacity to succeed, even in the face of challenges and setbacks. They are often confident, proactive, and persistent in pursuing their goals, and tend to approach new tasks and opportunities with a sense of optimism and enthusiasm. In contrast, individuals with low scores on Selfefficacy may struggle to believe in their own abilities and often doubt their capacity to succeed. They may feel overwhelmed by challenges and may avoid taking on new tasks or opportunities for fear of failure. 


Individuals who possess a strong level of Resilience tend to demonstrate persistence, emotional stability, and the ability to recover quickly from setbacks or challenging life circumstances. They maintain their focus on their goals, as they possess effective coping strategies to manage adversity and typically have strong social support networks. They tend to maintain a positive outlook even in difficult circumstances. They are likely to be inclined to learn from past experiences and use that knowledge to navigate future challenges. Conversely, those who exhibit low levels of Resilience may be more emotional and vulnerable to being strongly affected by setbacks and stress, which can hinder their ability to bounce back energetically. Such individuals may find it challenging to navigate difficult periods in life, and while they may experience moments of vigor, they may withdraw prematurely when faced with resistance and struggle to remain committed to their goals. 

Agility Mindset

The construct Agility Mindset is a dimension developed by Zortify. It addresses the accelerated change of the current world and illustrates the attitude of a person towards this change. The personality dimension is characterized by dynamism and flexibility.A high level is characterized by a strong will to shape and initiate the said change. Thus, individuals scoring high on Agility Mindset are equipped to react to new situations with curiosity and openness, and are often proactive in initiating and shaping developments. They approach the challenges of a fast-paced world with a strong creative drive and possess the attitude of being capable and willing to influence outcomes. Conversely, those with low scores on Agility Mindset tend to view change as a threat. They lack confidence in their own ability to handle upcoming challenges in a creative and imaginative manner, resulting in a more passive role when it comes to change. However, individuals with a lower level of Agility Mindset can offer a unique perspective in highly emotional and enthusiastic teams by protecting the group from uncritical thinking, hasty actions, and potential errors. 

Counterproductive Behavioral Tendencies 

Zortify’s personality model of Counterproductive Behavioral Tendencies is composed of the dimensions Self-centeredness, Impulsive Excitement-seeking and Strategic Manipulation. These traits have been identified as potentially destructive for the individual and the workplace. Above-average expressions of these personality traits are particularly common among executives and when it comes to leadership in general.

In the long term, however, an insensitive and manipulative interpersonal style can lead to interpersonal problems. And ultimately have a negative impact on team or company success. Zortify includes these “dark” measures of personality since they have previously been linked to workplace deviance. In varying degrees, these three personality traits share several characteristics of socially aversive behavior. Such as tendencies toward self-promotion, emotional coldness, duplicity, and aggressiveness. Thus, since a high degree of one or more dimensions leads to interpersonal problems and correlates negatively with corporate or team success. It is worth taking a look at these traits in order to identify possible interindividual dangers at an early stage. 


Individuals who score high on Self-centeredness tend to have an exaggerated sense of their own importance and abilities. They may have a grandiose sense of self, a lack of empathy for others, and a tendency to exploit or manipulate others to achieve their own goals. They may also have a strong desire for admiration and attention from others and become angry or hostile when they feel that they are not receiving enough recognition or feel that they need to defend themselves against opposing viewpoints. Individuals scoring high on Self-centeredness are likely to benefit from seeking advice from those who are not afraid to give them an opposing opinion. Individuals who score low on Selfcenteredness tend to have a humbler and more modest demeanor. They are less likely to think of themselves as being better or more important than others and tend to be less focused on achieving recognition and admiration from others. However, people with very low narcissism values may have low selfesteem. 

Impulsive Excitement-seeking

Individuals who score high on the Impulsive Excitement-seeking scale may tend to exhibit a lack of empathy or concern for others. They may also have a tendency to manipulate and exploit others for their own gain, and a willingness to engage in risky activities without feeling remorse or guilt. They may also be charming and charismatic, but this is often used to manipulate others. They tend to be insensitive to punishment and prone to boredom and seek new experiences to alleviate this boredom. Their behavior is guided more by ego-related and short-term emotions compared to long term planning or prudent action. Overall, high scorers may exhibit behavior characterized by a lack of concern for others, a willingness to use and exploit others for personal gain, and above average levels of aggressive reactions to frustration. People with low scores on Impulsive-excitement Seeking are more likely to react to frustration in a controlled and balanced way. They are unlikely to engage in impulsive or reckless behavior or display emotional eruptions or uncontrolled aggressive behavior. Rather, they are more moderate and tend to view themselves as sociable and compatible in dealing with others. They are therefore more likely to prioritize building close, meaningful relationships with others over seeking personal gain or power. 

Strategic Manipulation

Individuals scoring high on Strategic Manipulation are described as individuals who exhibit manipulative behavior to achieve their goals, adopt a more expedient approach to morals and ethics, show a desire to gain status for themselves, and have a need to have interpersonal control (Table 7; Dahling et al., 2009). They are often willing to use deception and other dubious tactics to achieve those goals. They may have a cynical view of human nature, seeing others as tools to be used for their own benefit rather than as individuals to be respected and valued. As such, high scorers may be inclined to trade information, pit people against each other, evaluate people solely for their usefulness, do not shy away from hurting others and always do things for their own advantage. Relationships tend to be meaningful to them only if they are helpful in expanding their power status. Individuals scoring low on Strategic Manipulation typically do not engage in a onesided and ruthless striving for power. People with low levels on this scale spend their time and energy on other things, such as building and expanding upright relationships. However, one should question whether the answering of the Zortify Personality Assessment was not already subject to tactical thought plays, in order to create a certain external picture. Individuals scoring high on strategic manipulation devote a lot of attention and energy to power games and intrigues.